Dural Arteriovenous Fistula (dAVF)
A dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) is an abnormality of the blood vessels that leads to shunting of blood from arteries to veins at an area of the tough covering over the brain (dura). The abnormality is very rare and is often associated with a prior traumatic injury. Patients may present with a variety of symptoms depending on the location, or the abnormality may be found incidentally when imaging is performed for an unrelated condition. Workup includes brain and spine imaging such as CT or MRI and often requires diagnostic catheter cerebral angiography for definitive diagnosis. Management options include observation, endovascular embolization, and microsurgical resection. Multiple factors must be considered to choose the optimal management strategy.