William Wilde (1815-1876), the father of Oscar Wilde, studied in London, Berlin, and Vienna and then settled in Dublin where he was an oculist (ophthalmologist) and an aurist (otologist). His method of treating acute mastoiditis is known as the "Wilde's incision." He believed that if the mastoid area became engorged or showed any fluctuation, a person should not hesitate to make a free incision of at least an inch in length. He felt the blade of a stout scalpel inserted steadily until the point reached the bone to secure complete division of the periosteum was needed. He explained Immediate relief should follow, even if pus was not discovered.
John James Watt in 1809 published his notes that included accurate anatomical descriptions of the parts of the nose, mouth, larynx, and fauces. With this publication, he included the first colored plates of the anatomy of the nose and throat.
Francois Magendie, (1783-1855), Professor of Medicine at Paris, published experiments in 1813 on the physiology of the larynx in reference to the purpose of the epiglottis. After completely removing the epiglottis in various animals, Magendie found that the animals did not have difficulty in swallowing solids or liquids.
J.F. L. Deschamps (1740-1824), of Paris, in 1804 wrote the first paper dedicated entirely to the nose and nasal sinuses. He gave lengthy attention to the sense of smell and stated that the sinuses had nothing to do with olfaction. He divided nasal polypi into fungous and vascular, mucous and lymphatic, scirrhous, and sarcomatous. Deschamps explained various methods of treating nasal polypi including local astringents; excision with a surgical knife; avulsion with forceps; chemical caustic and actual cautery. He recognized the symptoms of acute frontal sinusitis. He described simple inflammation and pus formation of the maxillary sinus.
John Reid in 1838 showed decisively that the superior nerve supplies sensation to the larynx and the recurrent nerve supplies movement, except in the case of the cricothyroid muscle.
Because of the advances in microscopes, Jacob Henle, Professor of Anatomy at Zurich, in 1838 proved the existence of epithelial covering of mucous on all surfaces of the body. He noted three types of epithelium - pavement, cylindrical, and ciliated.
Frederick Ryland, of Birmingham, in 1837 published his paper containing the anatomy and pathology of the larynx, acute laryngitis, edema of the glottis, erysipelatous laryngitis, chronic laryngitis, croup, diphtheriae, spasm of the glottis, hysterical afflictions of the larynx, tumors of the larynx and trachea, wounds and injuries of the larynx and trachea, and foreign bodies in the air passages. Ryland's publication is a clear description of diseases of the larynx as known prior to the invention of the laryngoscope.
Hippolyte Cloquet (1787-1840) in 1821 published a work of 750 pages where he described in detail deviations of nasal septum. Cloquet, however, did not believe there were any remedies for them. He also discussed the handling of fractures of the nose and rhinoplasty.
In the pre-laryngoscopic era, growths of the larynx, simple or malignant, were seldom diagnosed except when the body was examined after death.
Horace Green (1802-1866) was one of the founders of the New York Medical College in 1850. Green was one of a few to remove a laryngeal tumor before the invention of the laryngoscope. He also believed in applying topical remedies to the surface of the larynx for treatment of some laryngeal diseases. For many years, other professionals remained leery of this type of treatment.
In 1844, John Avery, a surgeon in London, was searching for a way to examine various parts of the body with the aid of a speculum and reflector. The Avery’s laryngoscope was invented and is very similar to those used today.
Patrick Heron Watson (1832-1907), a surgeon from Edinburgh England, performed the first laryngectomy in 1866 on a patient with syphilis of the larynx. The patient died of pneumonia.
Christian Theodor Billroth (1829-94), Professor of Surgery at Vienna, was the first to remove the larynx because of cancer in 1873, but recurrence and death took place within a month.
Gurdon Buck (1807-1877), a general surgeon in New York, was the first surgeon to perform a successful thyrotomy for the removal of a laryngeal cancer.
J. Solis Cohen (1838-1927), of Philadelphia, was the second person to perform a successful thyrotomy and he was the first in America to perform a laryngectomy.
Hans Wilhelm Meyer (1824-1895) of Copenhagen, in 1868 first described adenoids. He described the signs and symptoms of adenoids so completely that any doctor could detect their presence.
L. Grunwald in his textbook on "Nasal Suppuration" in 1893 firmly established the subject of sinus disease. Prior to this point, most felt that nasal pus of the maxillary antrum was associated with the teeth rather than the nose.
Joseph P. O'Dwyer (1841-1898) born in Cleveland, Ohio published in 1885 his successful method of intubation (insertion of a tube for air in the trachea) in cases of diphtheria. His method saved many children's lives. With the introduction of diphtheria antitoxin by Behring in 1890-1893, the number of cases requiring intubation or tracheotomy dropped.
Kolliker of Brussels in 1852 was the first to study tonsils with the microscope.
Adams (rhinologist) in 1875 recommended surgery on a deviated nasal septum. The surgery included the forcible fracture of the septum and its subsequent support by splints.
G. Caldwell of America (1893) and Luc of France (1894) independently suggested making a wide opening in the canine fossa and establishing a permanent counter-opening in the nasal cavity for operating on the maxillary antrum. This procedure is known today as the Caldwell-Luc method.
Ogston of Aberdeen in 1884 performed a frontal sinus operation where he made an incision one and one half inches long, beginning at the root of the nose and extending upwards over the nasal eminence of the frontal bone in the central line of the forehead. Luc of France designed a similar operation. This method became known as the Ogston-Luc operation.
Killian in 1895 described an operation on the frontal sinus designed to avoid deformity. His method included an incision through the eyebrow preserving the upper orbital arch but obtaining complete exposure of the frontal sinus. Killian's method was largely accepted and practiced until it was gradually found that it did not always produce a complete cure or avoid deformity, and osteomyelitis of the frontal bone sometimes resulted. Jansen, an assistant in Lucae's clinic, described around the same time the principles and technique of the modern frontal sinus operation. He explained the method of approaching the frontal sinus from the orbit with easy access to the ethmoid. This process gave good cosmetic results.
In 1840 Manoel Garcia, a singing teacher interested in the physiology of the human voice, made a long handled mirror to observe the interior of the larynx during singing. He proceeded to describe the action of the vocal cords during inspiration, expiration, and vocalization. He recorded his observations of the production of sound in the larynx. Garcia is recognized as the first successful laryngoscopist because of his accurate, detailed recording of these observations. At the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society in Hanover Square, London, Garcia on his 100th birthday, March 17, 1905, was formally recognized and honored as the the “Father of Laryngology”.
Ludwig Turck in 1857 was the first to use the laryngoscope to describe the clinical appearance of laryngeal disease.
Johann Czermak around 1857 developed the first laryngoscope as a practical, precision, surgical instrument. He advocated the use of a large perforated concave mirror for reflecting either the sun or artificial light.
The removal of the first laryngeal polyp with the aid of the laryngoscope was completed by G.R. Lewin on July 20th, 1860.
Morell Mackenzie (1837-1892) is regarded as the true founder of the modern tonsil operation. His guillotine was a modification of the one devised by Physick. In 1866, Mackenzie established the Throat Hospital in Golden Square, London. He published his first book, “Use of the Laryngoscope”, which reviewed the history of the laryngoscope and included a description of the new instruments and methods of examination. An important aid in laryngology came when Mackenzie’s changed the wide curve of the laryngeal instruments to a right angle which more easily reached the larynx from the mouth. Mackenzie’s textbook, “Disease of the Throat and Nose”, which had been called the “laryngologist’s bible” included one volume published in 1880 that dealt with the pharynx, larynx, and trachea and a second volume published in 1884 that dealt with the nose and esophagus. In 1887 Mackenzie, with the help of Norris Wolfenden, founded the monthly “Journal of Laryngology”, which added “otology”, making it concerned exclusively with the specialty otolaryngology.