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Philip S. Clifford, PhDPhilip S. Clifford, PhD

Professor of Anesthesiology and Physiology
Associate Dean for Postdoctoral Education

Anesthesia Research 151
Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center
5000 W. National Avenue
Milwaukee, WI 53295
Phone: 414-384-2000 ext. 41584
Fax: 414-645-6550


Dr. Philip Clifford received a PhD in Physiology from the Medical College of Wisconsin. He completed his Postdoctoral Fellowship in Pulmonary Pathophysiology from the University of Texas Health Science Center in Dallas, Texas.

Dr. Clifford's research interests include autonomic control of cardiovascular and respiratory function and clinical monitoring of cardiorespiratory function. Despite decades of investigation and innumerable studies, our understanding of the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow remains incomplete. Recent publications from the laboratory have provided evidence that there is rapid vasodilation at the onset of dynamic exercise which is not attributable to the autonomic nervous system, acetylcholine spillover from motor nerves, or the skeletal muscle pump. Our working hypothesis is that exercise hyperemia is initiated by mechanical deformation of the vascular wall during contraction.

Although somewhat counterintuitive, there is also tonic vasoconstriction in the skeletal muscle vasculature during exercise. In addition to norepinephrine, studies from our lab show that NPY and ATP appear to contribute to this constriction. Ongoing clinical studies in the laboratory include validation of pulse oximetry devices and evaluation of oxygen delivery systems.

To contact Dr. Clifford, please call 414-384-2000 ext. 41584 or e-mail

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Page Updated 03/18/2014