Graduate Studies in Molecular Biophysics

In the Molecular Biophysics track of the graduate program, emphasis is placed on free radicals and paramagnetic metal ions in biological systems.

Free Radicals

Generally, free radicals have a bad reputation because their production is associated with many diseases such as atherosclerosis and Lou Gehrig's disease, and they are also largely responsible for the unhealthy effects of air pollution. Most people are surprised to learn that many free radicals are stable molecules and that biological systems purposely make free radicals as paracrine hormones. The free radical nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the control of blood pressure, memory, and inflammation, and is a major focus of research in the Department of Biophysics. Free radicals have been used for many years to probe metal-ion-containing sites of proteins such as hemoglobin.

Spin Labels

Advances in genetic engineering now make it possible to introduce free radicals at any site in a protein by a technique known as site-directed spin labeling. Free radicals are excellent reporters of their environment and, therefore, can be used to investigate protein structure and dynamics. Site-directed spin-labeling studies of bacterial pores (used to control the flow of chemicals into and out of cells), as well as other proteins, are conducted in Biophysics.

Metal Ions

Paramagnetic metals are involved in all aspects of biology. For example, ribonucleotide reductase, an enzyme, contains both a tyrosyl free radical and a mu-oxo dinuclear iron center. An antitumor agent, iron bleomycin, damages DNA by free-radical chemistry. And, superoxide dismutase, a free-radical-scavenging enzyme, contains an active-site copper that may be important in Lou Gehrig's disease.

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  Molecular Biophysics Faculty

William E. Antholine, PhD
Associate Professor of Biophysics

Jimmy B. Feix, PhD
Professor of Biophysics

Neil Hogg, PhD
Professor of Biophysics

James S. Hyde, PhD
Professor of Biophysics

Balaraman Kalyanaraman, PhD
Chairman and Professor of Biophysics

Candice S. Klug, PhD
Professor of Biophysics

W. Karol Subczynski, PhD, DSc
Professor of Biophysics

Jeannette Vasquez-Vivar, PhD
Associate Professor of Biophysics

Student Expectations

In the Molecular Biophysics track, students will take the following courses in the first two years of entering the program:

  • Graduate Biochemistry
  • Advanced Protein Chemistry
  • Biophysical Techniques in Biochemistry
  • Techniques in Molecular Genetics
  • Electron Paramagnetic Spectroscopy (Theory and Practical Applications)
  • Free Radicals in Biology

In addition to the introductory core classes listed above, students have the opportunity to take more advanced classes specific to their chosen area of research. A dissertation proposal defense and qualifying exam are expected to be completed by the end of the third year of the program. A final dissertation defense is expected to occur by the fifth year of study.

Contact Us

Department of Biophysics
Medical College of Wisconsin
8701 Watertown Plank Road
Milwaukee, WI 53226-0509

(414) 955-4000
(414) 955-6512 (fax)

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8701 Watertown Plank Road
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Page Updated 07/01/2015