The history of Nephrology at the Medical College of Wisconsin began when Dr. Francis Murphy became the Clinical Director of Medicine at the Milwaukee County General Hospital in 1924. Kidney biopsies were first performed in 1958 and the chronic dialysis program was developed in 1967 as well as the first kidney transplant. In 1968 clinical research was presented on the capillary dialyzer which is currently used by most dialysis programs today. Currently the Division of Nephrology at the Medical College of Wisconsin has started working with the Kidney Disease Center, which integrates a program of basic science research with clinical science. Also, the teaching of kidney transplantation and medical and surgical kidney diseases is included. The Division of Nephrology has a proud past and a even more promising future.