Acute stroke affects nearly 800,000 Americans annually making it the leading cause of disability and the 4th leading cause of death in the United States. About 80% of these strokes are due to a blockage of a blood vessel known as an “ischemic stroke.”
An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormality of the blood vessels that may be present in the brain or spine. The malformation results in shunting of blood from arteries to veins, bypassing capillary blood vessels that serve normal brain tissue.
A brain aneurysm (cerebral aneurysm) is a bulge arising from the side of an artery wall in the head and may be present from birth or develop after injury.
Carotid artery disease includes atherosclerosis which is the narrowing of the artery due to buildup of fatty substances and cholesterol deposits known as plaque. Stenosis (narrowing) of these arteries can lead to stroke.
A dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) is an abnormality of the blood vessels that leads to shunting of blood from arteries to veins at an area of the tough covering over the brain (dura). The abnormality is very rare and is often associated with a prior traumatic injury.
The vertebral arteries are a set of paired arteries that supply oxygenated blood to the back part of the brain. Atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries due to fatty substance deposition and plaque buildup, can lead to narrowing of the blood vessels.
The vertebral body is the largest part of the vertebra and is the weight-supporting central portion of each vertebra. Excessive compressive forces, or normal compressive forces upon a weakened vertebral body, can lead to fracture.
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