I spent 16 years at Varian Associates, heading their EPR research and development program, and I came to MCW in 1975 as professor of Biophysics to help establish the National Biomedical EPR Center, a P41 Research Resource supported by the National Center for Research Resources of NIH (which has since been transferred to the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering [NIBIB]). The EPR Center grant has been continuously funded since 1976. I served as director of the EPR Center from 1980 until my retirement in 2016.
Honors and Awards
2014 - The James S. Hyde Lecturer in Functional Connectivity lectureship
2013 - Eureka Award, The Business Journal
2012 - T. Michael Bolger Award, MCW
2009 - The James S. Hyde Professor of Biophysics chair, awarded in the Department of Biophysics
2009 - MIT Club of Wisconsin's Annual Technology Achievement Award
2008 - Fellow, ISMAR (International Society of Magnetic Resonance)
2008 - Distinguished Service Award, MCW
2002 - Fellow, International EPR Society
1999 - Gold Medal, The International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
1995 - Zavoisky Award, Kazan
1993 - Gold Medal, International EPR/ESR Society
1989 - Bruker Prize of the Royal Society of Chemistry, United Kingdom
1989 - Doctoris Honoris Causa, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
1975 - Fellow of The American Physical Society
BS, Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 1954
PhD, Physics (EPR), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 1959
We have published a series of papers on EPR sample-containing resonators using finite element modeling of electromagnetic fields. We studied the effect of an aqueous sample on field distribution, defined a new principle for design of aqueous-sample cuvettes, and invented a new class of resonators—the so-called uniform-field cavities. These advances would hardly have been possible without improved software and increased computing power.
In 1984, I became interested in MRI, which led to a program of research and development of surface coils and gradient coils. My students and I wrote the first paper on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the sensorimotor system in human brain in 1992, as well as the first paper on functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) in 1995. With the acquisition of the 9.4T small animal scanner, my interests shifted to fMRI and fcMRI in rat brain at high spatial resolution. I collaborated with reconstructive surgeons in the Department of Plastic Surgery. Manipulation of the nerves of the rat forelimb, including use of embedded electrodes, nerve transection, and nerve transfer, is leading both to new insights in neuroscience and to new opportunities in translational research. One of my projects was in collaboration with the Department of Radiology and involved real-time analysis of fMRI and fcMRI data from patients. We were proposing to develop new ways to deal with the problem of motion, which can be severe in individuals who are ill or elderly.
EPR and MRI research is carried out in cooperation with staff engineers and scientists, several long-standing collaborators including Wojciech Froncisz (Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland), and predoctoral students and fellows.