Stories from the Field
The Comprehensive Injury Center (CIC) partners with community-based coalition to reduce underage drinking and its consequences in La Crosse County.
Between 1998 and 2008, nine young men drowned in the nearby Mississippi River as a result of alcohol overuse with BACs as high as 0.41 (5 times the legal limit). The Changing the Culture of Risky Drinking Behavior Community Coalition is a community-academic partnership between the Injury Research Center (IRC) and the La Crosse Medical Health Science Consortium (LMHSC). LMHSC is a partnership of two medical systems and three schools of higher education formed in response to those drowning deaths.Changing the Culture of Risky Drinking Behavior
In 2007, the LMHSC-IRC community-academic partnership received a planning grant from the Medical College of Wisconsin’s Healthier Wisconsin Partnership Program (HWPP) to assess the community's culture and develop a strategic plan for addressing alcohol-related injury and death among 12-24 year-olds. This grant led to the Coalition’s initial formation. The planning grant resulted in a report on the burden of alcohol-related injury in La Crosse County, a compilation of community assets for alcohol-related injury prevention, and a Strategic Plan that identified underage access and binge drinking as the major issues leading to the prevalence of injury in the community.
In 2009, the same year that La Crosse County ranked 4th worst in the state for binge drinking among 18-25 year olds, the community-academic partnership received 3 years of funding from the HWPP to focus on reducing underage access to alcohol. Activities led to changes in alcohol-related practices in La Crosse County such as best practices being adopted by community festivals, more alcohol servers seeking and receiving training in Responsible Beverage Service, additional alcohol compliance checks by law enforcement, parents of at-risk youth attending Strengthening Families sessions with their children and learning about safer practices related to alcohol in the home, and youth getting involved in alcohol awareness in their schools and communities.
In 2012, the community-academic partnership will continue its work with an additional 5 years of funding from the HWPP to create a sustainably safe environment for alcohol consumption. This will be accomplished through improvements in the delivery of evidence-based practices such as Responsible Beverage Service training and the Parents Who Host Lose the Most campaign; changes in local alcohol licensing policies; practices on college campuses, in taverns, and at festivals; and education for current and future leaders in community collaboration. The IRC’s assistance and experience with alcohol policy change, evaluation, and dissemination, will help lay the groundwork for permanent changes in the culture of risky drinking behavior of La Crosse County. The IRC is also helping to develop models of success that can be replicated in communities across the state and nation.
Keeping Kids Alive in Wisconsin had three objectives:
- The first objective was to provide assistance to 30 Wisconsin counties to develop CDR teams. Over the course of the grant, 39 CDR teams were created or restructured, while an additional 14 counties expressed interest in implementation.
- The second objective was to facilitate data collection and participation in the National Case Reporting System for Child Death Review. Over 70% of teams entered data into the system.
- The final objective of the project was to develop recommendations and establish governing policy and sustainability for implementation by state leaders for a model CDR system in Wisconsin. To address implementation barriers reported by local teams, partners created a legislative framework to enable formation of local CDR teams. This framework is currently at the Legislative Reference Bureau for drafting The Injury Research Center was instrumental in achieving all three objectives by developing webinars and training tools to facilitate data entry and improve data quality, as well as working with local teams in using data to create recommendations for prevention. The grant allowed partners to build a comprehensive CDR program that enabled local communities to learn from child deaths and use meaningful data as a catalyst for prevention.
The Injury Research Center was instrumental in achieving all three objectives by developing webinars and training tools to facilitate data entry and improve data quality, as well as working with local teams in using data to create recommendations for prevention. The grant allowed partners to build a comprehensive CDR program that enabled local communities to learn from child deaths and use meaningful data as a catalyst for prevention.
One issue that emerged at both the national and state levels during the grant period was infant safe sleep. Over half of child deaths in Wisconsin occur in those aged less than one year. Of those infant deaths in the Case Reporting System, one-third were classified as “sleep-related”. Fetal Infant Mortality Review (FIMR) is a review process which focuses on infant and stillbirth deaths. Like CDR, FIMR teams review risk factors and circumstances surrounding the infant death in order to prevent future deaths. In 2011, the partners convened with the Milwaukee County Fetal Infant Mortality Review Team leadership to develop Preserving Infant and Child Health. The goal of this project was to build upon the success of Keeping Kids Alive and reduce the burden of infant and child mortality utilizing both the FIMR and CDR processes in five pilot counties across the state. FIMR and CDR currently exist as two separate review systems, lacking formal collaboration and communication. The combined use of FIMR and CDR in counties could have a greater chance for improving health outcomes for problems like unsafe sleep environment deaths. The partners received three years of funding to implement Preserving Infant and Child Health from the University of Wisconsin Partnership Program in 2012.
Collaborative effort of the Comprehensive Injury Center (CIC) and Kenosha County Division of Health increases education and awareness to prevent suicide.Suicide was the second leading cause of injury death in Kenosha County according to the Injury Research Center’s 2006 Burden of Injury in Wisconsin report. This, in addition to a sudden increase in adolescent suicides, led Kenosha County to form a suicide coalition with guidance from the Injury Research Center at the Medical College of Wisconsin through the Wisconsin Injury Prevention Coalitions (WIPC) project funded by the Healthier Wisconsin Partnership Program in 2005. The project worked to reduce the burden of unintentional and intentional injuries in Wisconsin by facilitating the translation of injury prevention research into the implementation of evidence-driven, community-based programs and policies. The academic and state health department partners supported local health department-based community coalitions through technical assistance, best practices guides, evidence-based research, and direct consultation in all aspects of coalition development and management, as well as development, implementation, and evaluation of the program, policy, or practice. In turn, coalitions identify priority areas of injury to address based on community priorities and resources and then select and implement an evidence-based Kenosha County Suicide Prevention injury prevention program. The Kenosha County Suicide Prevention Coalition was one of the five coalitions funded as part of this project.
At the conclusion of The WIPC project, the Injury Research Center and the Kenosha County Division of Health collaborated to further develop suicide prevention in Kenosha County. The result was an initiative to prevent suicide and non-fatal suicide attempts through increased education and awareness and decreased access to lethal means. This three-year project was funded by the Healthier Wisconsin Partnership Program in 2008. Successes of the initiative include coalition growth, resource development, coordinated mental health services, initiation and sustainability of Question-Persuade-Refer trainings and the implementation of several means restriction activities through community agencies and emergency departments. As a result, suicide rates in Kenosha declined from 18.51 in 2007 to 11.01 in 2009. The rate of ED visits in 25-64-year-olds decreased significantly in Kenosha during 2008-2009 compared to the remaining WI counties. Data analysis for the second half of this project is forthcoming to see if these promising results were sustained over time.
While the proportion of suicides involving firearms was lower in Kenosha than Wisconsin for 2005-2009, the proportion of suicides involving poisoning was higher in Kenosha than Wisconsin for the same time frame. Additionally, unintentional poisoning moved from the 4th leading cause of injury deaths in Kenosha County in 2006 to leading cause of injury death in Kenosha County in 2011 according to the Injury Research Center’s Burden of Injury in Wisconsin reports. In light of this new data, the partnership developed three new objectives: Prevent access to methods of self-harm, with a focus on poisoning; Expand prevention efforts through coalition expansion and formation of a suicide death analysis review team; and Increase identification, referral and treatment of persons at risk for suicide and self-harm. The partnership received an additional five years of funding from the Healthier Wisconsin Partnership Program to begin work on these objectives in 2012.