Seahorse Bioscience Extracellular Flux Analyzer
The Seahorse XF-96 measures the rate of change of analytes dissolved oxygen and pH in media immediately surrounding living cells cultured in a microplate. Changes in the extracellular media are caused by the consumption or production of analytes by the cells. Therefore, a sensitive measurement of the media flux can be used to determine rates of cellular metabolism with great precision and in a totally noninvasive, label free manner. The analyzer can make measurements in as little as five minutes. Cells can be profiled over a period of minutes, hours, or days.
The cost per experimental plate is $200. This price includes the compounds utilized in a basic mitochondrial stress test (oligomycin, FCCP, and ANT.A/Rotenone).
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The theory behind this instrument is based on the fact that normal cells rely on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to produce ATP (34 molecules of ATP/one molecule of glucose) as a source of cellular energy. On the other hand, most cancer cells utilize aerobic glycolysis which is energetically inefficient, to generate ATP (2 ATP/one molecule of glucose) with a decreased use of TCA cycle. Subsequently, tumor cells are glycolytic and actively take up much more glucose. Glucose is converted to G-6-P by high intracellular levels of hexokinases. This metabolic shift from OXPHOS to aerobic glycolysis with increased lactate production is known as the "Warburg effect."