Cecilia J. Hillard, PhD
Associate Dean for Research; Professor; Director, Neuroscience Research Center; G. Frederick Kasten, Jr. Endowed Chair in Parkinson’s Disease Research
- Pharmacology and Toxicology
BS, Chemistry, University of Virginia, 1977
Dr. Hillard was named Associate Dean for Research in November 2015 after serving eight months as co-Interim Senior Associate Dean for Research. She has served as director of the Neuroscience Research Center since its inception in 2010. She was also Inaugural Director of the Neuroscience Graduate Training Program from 1996-2010. As a highly active researcher, Dr. Hillard’s laboratory is primarily focused on the pharmacology and biochemistry of the cannabinoids and endocannabinoids. Her significant bibliography and frequent invitations to present attest to her reputation as a leader in her field. Dr. Hillard is an MCW graduate and a true advocate for the Basic Sciences. Frequently named an Outstanding Medical Student Teacher, Dr. Hillard takes an active role in training and mentorship, receiving MCW’s highest honor, the Distinguished Service Award, in 2011.
Dr. Hillard was recently awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award from the International Cannabinoid Research Society. Dr. Hillard is a member of both the Society of Teaching Scholars and the Society for Research Excellence at MCW.
- Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists
- Cannabinoid Receptor Modulators
- Carrier Proteins
- Cells, Cultured
Marijuana has been used by humans for more than 2,500 years as a medicinal agent and social drug. Cannabinoids are the chemicals in marijuana that are responsible for its effects on the body. A long-standing interest of our laboratory is the study of the mechanisms by which the cannabinoids affect the function of the brain. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the cannabinoid in marijuana that is responsible for its mood- and sensation-altering effects. THC targets two receptors: the CB1 receptor present on neurons and the CB2 receptor that is present primarily on immune cells. Although THC targets these receptors when a person is exposed to the drug from the outside, we know that at least two “endogenous” (or, from the self) molecules also target these receptors. These two molecules are named the endocannabinoids. Our research focuses on the cannabinoids, the receptors with which they interact and the role of the endocannabinoids in brain function.
We have three major research projects:
Studies of the biochemical mechanisms involved in the synthesis, release and degradation of the endocannabinoids
At least two lipid molecules are thought to act as endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Both can be synthesized by neurons but our knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate their synthesis is lacking in detail. One goal of our work is to develop inhibitors of these pathways to help us understand the physiological roles of endocannabinoids. We are also studying the processes by which the endocannabinoids are inactivated. We know that they are catabolized by enzymes and that they are substrates for transporters that act in plasma membranes. One of our goals is to biochemically understand these processes and to develop inhibitors.
Studies of the role of endocannabinoid signaling in the regulation of mood and responses to stress
Several laboratories, including ours, have demonstrated that one very important function of the endocannabinoids is to regulate the response of the brain to stress. Animals and humans need to cope with physical and psychological stresses in order to survive, but stress responses have a cost. For example, we know that long term stress exposure results in depression and post traumatic stress disorder in humans. The endogenous cannabinoid system is a stress buffer, it turns down the hormonal and behavioral responses to stress. In addition, the endocannabinoid system is itself turned on or, in some cases, turned off by stress. Our goal in these studies is to examine the mechanistic relationships between stress and the endocannabinoids. While most of our studies are carried out using rodent models, we are also exploring these processes in human subjects exposed to periods of psychological stress through collaborations with other investigators.
Roles of cannabinoids in regulation of the immune response
Signaling through the CB2 receptor has been shown to reduce activation of the immune system. Although immune cell activation is vital to fight infections, excess or inappropriate immune activation contributes to many important and devastating diseases, including multiple sclerosis and graft-versus-host disease, which can occur after bone marrow transplants to treat cancer. Our laboratory is exploring the roles of CB2 receptors and the phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol, in neuroinflammation and graft-versus-host disease models.
(Casey R. Vickstrom, Xiaojie Liu, Shuai Liu, Meng-Ming Hu, Lianwei Mu, Ying Hu, Hao Yu, Santidra L. Love, Cecilia J. Hillard, Qing-song Liu .) Molecular Psychiatry . Vickstrom, C.R., Liu, X., Liu, S. et al. The MSDB sends a GABAergic projection to cholinergic neurons in the ventral MHb. Mol Psychiatry 26, 2679 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01280-1 09/15/2021
(Lin X, Xu Z, Carey L, Romero J, Makriyannis A, Hillard CJ, Ruggiero E, Dockum M, Houk G, Mackie K, Albrecht PJ, Rice FL, Hohmann AG.) Pain. 2022 05 01;163(5):834-851 PMID: 35001054 PMCID: PMC8942871 SCOPUS ID: 2-s2.0-85128493394 01/11/2022
(deRoon-Cassini TA, Bergner CL, Chesney SA, Schumann NR, Lee TS, Brasel KJ, Hillard CJ.) Transl Psychiatry. 2022 02 01;12(1):48 PMID: 35105857 PMCID: PMC8807700 SCOPUS ID: 2-s2.0-85124060615 02/03/2022
(Ten-Blanco M, Flores Á, Pereda-Pérez I, Piscitelli F, Izquierdo-Luengo C, Cristino L, Romero J, Hillard CJ, Maldonado R, Di Marzo V, Berrendero F.) Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy. May 2022;149 SCOPUS ID: 2-s2.0-85127815071 05/01/2022
(Jayan D, deRoon-Cassini TA, Sauber G, Hillard CJ, Fitzgerald JM.) Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2022 01;135:105450 PMID: 34775251 PMCID: PMC8686692 SCOPUS ID: 2-s2.0-85118826291 11/15/2021
(Yu H, Liu X, Chen B, Vickstrom CR, Friedman V, Kelly TJ, Bai X, Zhao L, Hillard CJ, Liu QS.) Cells. 2021 12 16;10(12) PMID: 34944056 PMCID: PMC8700250 SCOPUS ID: 2-s2.0-85121121427 12/25/2021
(Stollenwerk TM, Hillard CJ.) Cells. 2021 12 11;10(12) PMID: 34944011 PMCID: PMC8700174 SCOPUS ID: 2-s2.0-85121034066 12/25/2021
(Stollenwerk TM, Pollock S, Hillard CJ.) Molecules. 2021 Sep 02;26(17) PMID: 34500787 PMCID: PMC8434367 SCOPUS ID: 2-s2.0-85114348357 09/11/2021
(Kang M, Bohorquez-Montoya L, McAuliffe T, Claesges SA, Blair NO, Sauber G, Reynolds CF 3rd, Hillard CJ, Goveas JS.) Front Psychiatry. 2021;12:783187 PMID: 34955928 PMCID: PMC8692767 SCOPUS ID: 2-s2.0-85121649643 12/28/2021
(Stollenwerk TM, Hillard CJ.) Cells. December 2021;10(12) SCOPUS ID: 2-s2.0-85121034066 12/01/2021
(Yu H, Liu X, Chen B, Vickstrom CR, Friedman V, Kelly TJ, Bai X, Zhao L, Hillard CJ, Liu QS.) Cells. December 2021;10(12) SCOPUS ID: 2-s2.0-85121121427 12/01/2021
(Crombie KM, Sartin-Tarm A, Sellnow K, Ahrenholtz R, Lee S, Matalamaki M, Almassi NE, Hillard CJ, Koltyn KF, Adams TG, Cisler JM.) Psychoneuroendocrinology. October 2021;132 SCOPUS ID: 2-s2.0-85110337155 10/01/2021