Department of Ophthalmology Case Studies

For Medical Students

This is a collection of case studies to help you get an insight on the typical history and initial examination of various ophthalmic disorders. The discussion, although brief, is intended to give you a simple overview of each disease. The questions at the end of each case are a good review for M3 Ophthalmology rotation final examination. Feel free to contact Alexander J. Khammar, MD, with any questions regarding the cases.

ObjectivesDepartment of Ophthalmology Case Studies

After thoroughly reviewing these case studies, the learner will be able to:

  • Recognize and describe the typical presentation of common conditions affecting the anterior and posterior segments of the eye;
  • Consider a range of multiple etiologies when examining patients with eye or vision problems, including trauma, infection, congenital abnormalities, autoimmunity, vascular issues, metabolic deficiencies, and environmental causes;
  • Recall the basic pathophysiology underlying numerous ophthalmic conditions;
  • Evaluate the significance of clinical findings in relation to common ophthalmic diseases;
  • Formulate a differential diagnosis after reviewing the patient’s history and ocular exam;
  • Identify which laboratory tests or exams are appropriate to confirm and evaluate specific ophthalmic diagnoses;
  • Discuss therapeutic options and treatment plans for a number of acute and chronic ophthalmic diseases.

We've included a listing of commonly used ophthalmic abbreviations for your review. 

Abbreviations (PDF)

Case 1

Acute R eye pain

Case 2
Red, itchy eyes

Case 3
Acute left eye pain and blurry vision

Case 4
Left eye pain and fuzzy vision 2 days after eye surgery

Case 5
Girl rubbing her R eye after trauma

Case 6
Red eye and pain on the left

Case 7
Vision loss L eye

Case 8
Crossed eyes

Case 9
White pupils

Case 10
Blurry vision in the left eye for 2 weeks

Case 11
Acute pain and burning in L eye

Case 12
Blurry vision in both eyes and headaches

Case 13
"Cannot see well" from left eye

Case 14
Blurry vision in both eyes

Case 15
Eye irritation and dryness

Case 16
2 brief episodes of vision loss in the R eye

Case 17
Routine eye exam

Disclaimer for Our Patients-

Although these cases provide a little information on the typical presentation of various ophthalmic diseases it should not replace a personal consultation with an ophthalmologist or other eye care provider. If you are having any problems with your vision, feel free to call (414) 955-2020 and make an appointment to see any of us. We would be delighted to see you.

Contact Us

For questions regarding the cases:

Alexander J. Khammar, MD, Email

Ophthalmic abbreviations (PDF)

Eye Institute, Froedtert Hospital
925 N. 87th St.
Milwaukee, WI
(414) 955-2020 - main number
(414) 955-6300 (Fax)
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